About the Informal Economy

Auria Cantorín owns a newsstand and is a newspaper vendor in Lima, Peru

Photo by Juan Arredondo/Getty Images Reportage

The Informal Economy

The informal economy is the diversified set of economic activities, enterprises, jobs, and workers that are not regulated or protected by the state. The concept originally applied to self-employment in small unregistered enterprises. It has been expanded to include wage employment in unprotected jobs.

This Informal Economy section provides an overview and resources. For more in-depth information and discussion, read WIEGO Working Paper No. 1, The Informal Economy: Definitions, Theories and Policies by Martha A. Chen. If referencing material from this website, please cite the source.

What’s Available in this Web Section

  • Since its “discovery” in the early 1970s, the informal economy and its role in economic development have been hotly debated. History & Debates presents a brief overview and looks at subsequent debates and the dominant schools of thought on the informal economy.
  • Global estimates on the size of informal employment (ILO 2018) show 61 per cent of all workers are informally employed – 2 billion workers worldwide. The Statistics subsection offers data, details and discussion.
  • The informal economy is expanding in many contexts, appearing in new places and new guises. It plays a significant role in the global economy and, if supported, in reducing poverty and inequality. The informal economy does not, however, offer a “cushion” during economic crisis. Poverty & Growth Linkages explores these interrelated topics.
  • Occupational Groups features information on the size, contributions and working conditions of some of the most significant sectors in the informal economy. By occupational groups, we are referring to specific groups of workers, though not all may be cleanly characterized by occupation. For example, home-based workers produce a variety of goods and services across many industries.
  • Economic and social policies have direct impacts on the informal economy. Policy Frameworks summarizes policy responses and considers policy frameworks.